History of Kham - History of Kham

  WEST CHINA TRAVEL SERVICE,  WEST CHINA TOUR OPERATOR,  Intowestchina Holiday,  www.intowestchina.com  
    CHENGDU UNIVERSAL INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL SERVICE CO.LTD,  CHENGDU INTOWESTCHINA BUSINESS SERVICE CO. LTD  
 

Intowestchina MICE
 About Us
 Conference Planning
 Exhibition Arrangement
 Incentive Tour
 Hotel & Banquet
 Car and Coach Rental
 Simultaneous Interpreting
 Entertainment & Recreation
 Photographer Service
 Team Building Activity
China Panorama Tour
 China Panorama Tour
 Sichuan Tibet Tour
 Sichuan Yunnan Tour
 Sichuan Chongqing Tour
 Qinghai Tibet Tours
 Silk Road Adventure
 China Birding Tour
Intowestchina Holiday
 Giant Panda Tour
 Sichuan Travel/Tour
 Jiuzhaigou Travel/Tour
 Kham Exploration Tour
 Overland Adventure
 Sichuan Trekking Tour
Intowestchina Travel Guide
 Sichuan Travel Guide
 Kham Travel Guide
 Yunnan Travel Guide
 Tibet Travel Guide
 Qinghai Travel Guide
 Chongqing Travel Guide
 Silk Road Travel Guide
Intowestchina Hotel Booking
 Sichuan Hotel Booking
 Kham Hotel Booking
 Tibet Hotel Booking
 Yunan Hotel Booking
 Qinghai Hotel Booking
 Chongqing Hotel Booking
 Silk Road Hotel Booking
Intowestchina Photo Gallery
 Sichuan Photo Gallery
 Kham Photo Gallery
 Yunan Photo Gallery
 Tibet Photo Gallery
 Qinghai Photo Gallery
 Chongqing Photo Gallery
 Silk Road Photo Gallery
Search
Why choose
Intowestchina Holiday is Your reliable west China travel service, provide west China tour packages includes Sichuan tour, Kham tour, Tibet tour, Yunan tour and Silk road adventure  etc. Besides classic package tours, it is especially in small-group customized tour and adventure travel in China west.
Subscribe & Win
Simply by subscribing to our monthly e-newsletter (packed with hot tips, great stories and hot-off-the-press news), you can win an Intowestchina Holiday - one given away each month!
Links
Links
Hotels / Flights


TRAVEL TO MYSTERIOUS WEST CHINA,  EXPLORE THE AMAZING TIBETAN AND CHINESE CULTURE ! 

Cell phone: +86 13880237325  
+86 13880668408
E-mail: fanmartin8848@hotmail.com  
   
Booking China tour with your reliable tour operator !!

Call : 0086 28
13880668408

 intowestchina >> China Tour Packages >> Kham Exploration Tour >> History of Kham
 Overview of kangding
 History of Shoton Festival
 Kangding-Introduction
 History of Kham
 About Kham
 001 A Brief to Kham
6 Pieces   The first Page Page up Page down The last Page Page   No.1 /1Pages  20 Pieces/Page Change to:
  

Kham tour Kham tour Kham tour

Kham was traditionally referred to as chuzhi gangdruk, i.e. 'four rivers and six ranges'. The peoples of Kham have endured a tumultuous past, their sovereignty often encroached upon and marginalized by both Tibetans to the West and the Han Chinese to the East.

 

Kham was never controlled by a single king, but was a patchwork of two dozen or more kingdoms, tribes, and chiefdoms that were constantly at war with each other. Since the collapse of the Tibetan Empire in the mid-9th century, the peoples of Kham had aggressively maintained their independence from Lhasa. Local chieftains ruled their respective territories with hereditary titles bestowed by Chinese emperors. Chinese control was minimal, however, and chieftains were able to rule with a large degree of independence from both China and Tibet

 

In 1717, Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.

 

Tibetan control of the Batang region of Kham appears to have continued uncontested from an agreement made in 1726 until soon after the invasion of Tibet by Francis Younghusband in 1904, which alarmed the Qing rulers in China. They sent an imperial official to the region to begin reasserting Qing control, but the locals revolted and killed him. The Qing government in Beijing then appointed Zhao Erfeng, the Governor of Xining, "Army Commander of Tibet" to reintegrate Tibet into China. He was sent in 1905 (though other sources say this occurred in 1908) on a punitive expedition and began destroying many monasteries in Kham and Amdo and implementing a process of sinification of the region。

kham tour
 

"He abolished the powers of the Tibetan local leaders and appointed Chinese magistrates in their places. He introduced new laws that limited the number of lamas and deprived monasteries of their temporal power and inaugurated schemes for having the land cultivated by Chinese immigrants.

 

Zhao's methods in eastern Tibet uncannily prefigured the Communist policies nearly half a century later. They were aimed at the extermination of the Tibetan clergy, the assimilation of territory and repopulation of the Tibetan plateaus with poor peasants from Sichuan. Like the later Chinese conquerors, Zhao's men looted and destroyed Tibetan monasteries, melted down religious images and tore up sacred texts to use to line the soles of their boots and, as the Communists were also to do later, Zhao Erfeng worked out a comprehensive scheme for the redevelopment of Tibet that covered military training reclamation work, secular education, trade and administration."

 

In 1910, the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own to establish direct Chinese rule and deposed the Dalai Lama in an imperial edict. The Dalai Lama once again fled, this time to India. "By going in and then coming out again, we knocked the Tibetans down and left them for the first comer to kick," wrote Charles Alfred Bell, a British diplomatic officer stationed in Sikkim and a critic of the Liberal government's policy. The situation was soon to change, however, as, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in October 1911, Zhao's soldiers mutinied and beheaded him.

 

The 13th Dalai Lama fled to British India in February 1910. The same month, the Chinese Qing government issued a proclamation deposing the Dalai Lama and instigating the search for a new incarnation. While in India, the Dalai Lama became a close friend of the British Political Officer Charles Alfred Bell.

 

The official position of the British Government was it would not intervene between China and Tibet and would only recognize the de facto government of China within Tibet at this time.Bell, in his history of Tibet, wrote of this time that "the Tibetans were abandoned to Chinese aggression, an aggression for which the British Military Expedition to Lhasa and subsequent retreat [and consequent power vacuum within Tibet) were primarily responsible".Later, Britain defined the Indo-Tibetan border at the 1914 Simla conference with the McMahon Line. China's delegation initialled the convention but the government repudiated it.

 

In 1932, an agreement signed between Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui and Tibetan forces formalized the partition of Kham into two regions: Eastern Kham, which was administered by Chinese forces, and Western Kham, which was administered by Tibet. Eastern Kham subsequently became the actual area of control of China's Xikang province. The border between eastern and western Kham is the Yangtze River - Dri Chu in Tibetan and Jinsha Jiang, or Chang Jiang respectively, in Chinese.

 

In 1950, following the defeat of the Kuomintang rulers of China by communist forces in the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army entered western Kham. Western Kham was then set up as a separate Qamdo Territory (昌都地区), then merged into Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965. Meanwhile, Xikang province, comprising eastern Kham, was merged into Sichuan province in 1955. The border between Sichuan and Tibet Autonomous Region has remained the Yangtze River. The northernmost region of Kham, Yushu, has been a part of Qinghai province since the 18th century.

kham tour

Link to us | Print This Page | Send To Friend | Bookmark This Page | Travelog | Testimonial | Sitemap | Disclaimer/Privacy

China Tour jiuzhaigou travel chinabirding tour Sichuan Tour kham Tour Tibet Tour Yunnan Tour Qinghai Tour Jiuzhaigou Tour Silk Road Adventure Tour
China Travel Guide Sichuan Travel Guide kham Travel Guide Tibet Travel Guide Yunnan Travel Guide Qinghai Travel Guide
Jiuzhaigou Travel Guide Silk Road Travel Guide China Trip Sichuan Trip Kham Trip Tibet Trip Yunnan Trip
Qinghai Trip Jiuzhaigou Trip Silk Road Trip China Holiday Jiuzhaigou Holiday Kham Holiday Tibet Holiday
www.intowestchina.com Intowestchina Holiday
Tel:+86 13880668408 Fax: +86 28 66476366
Cell phone:+86 13880237325 E-mail: fanmartin8848@hotmail.com
Copyright © 2006 Intowestchina Holiday Travel Company
Add: 8F SHUNJI MASSION,, 252# SHUNCHENG STREET,QINGYANG DISTRICT CHENGDU CITY. Zip code: 610017.
PageRank