Qinghai Tibet Culture Heritage
The Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the highest railroad in the world, carried 2,569 passengers to Tibet Autonomous Region in the first three days of operation. Three passenger trains, starting from Beijing, Lanzhou and Chengdu pulled into the Lhasa Railway Station one after another on Monday.Before the opening of the railway, flights from Beijing, Chengdu and several other Chinese cities carry hundreds of people to Lhasa everyday.
"I came to the platform everyday to present had a (a white silk scarf symbolizing respect and blessings) to passengers when they got off the train," said Zhoima, 18, a student at Lhasa Teachers Professional School.
Zhoima was one of the volunteer groups organized by the Lhasa Youth League Committee to participate in activities celebrating the opening of the railway on July 1.
"I feel tired, but excited, and I will take part in a dance performance in the square in front of the Potala Palace Tuesday," Zhoima said.
A young woman surnamed Chen, arriving from Beijing, said, "I enjoyed the journey and the beautiful scenery. It's a pity that I can only stay in Lhasa for a week before I have to return to work."
"We never expected to make a profit from singing and dancing," said Cering Wangdu, head of the committee of Sangmu Village in Doilungdeqen County, which is administrated by Lhasa.
Last year, the village began performances of Tibetan dance and songs and other activities showcasing Tibetan folklore to entertain visitors.
"The railway brings us guests and business," Cering Wangdu said.
The Qinghai-Tibet Railway stretches 1,956 kilometers from Xining to Lhasa. About 960 kilometers is located 4,000 meters above sea level and the highest point is 5,072 meters, at least 200 meters higher than the Peruvian railway in the Andes, the former world's highest track.
The first train from the Chinese capital started its journey of 4,060 kilometers to Lhasa on Saturday evening and arrived late Monday after more than 48 hours.
Two-and-a-half years' safe operation of the Qinghai-Tibet railway has proven that China's technologies in building railways on frozen earth are ready to be used in more projects, a leading scientist said.
The longest and highest railway in the world also received a State Special Award for Scientific and Technological Progress on Friday.
"The set of technologies that solved problems about frozen earth and altitude sickness can benefit many other projects, such as the future Xinjiang-Tibet railway and the petroleum pipelines across Northeast China," Cheng Guodong, professor and president of Lanzhou branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said in an interview.
The technologies are also likely to make building an expressway on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau possible, he said.
The Ministry of Transport and Cheng's branch are currently doing research on the idea, but it is still in the very early stages, he said.
"Technically it is possible, but building expressways are definitely more difficult than railways, because expressways are rigid and inflexible, not like rail tracks," he said.
So far, the Qinghai-Tibet railway has operated safely and no fatal accidents have occurred since its opening on July 1, 2006, Sun Yongfu, former vice-minister of railways, said in an interview.
By last May, 1.48 million passengers have ridden the train into Tibet and 1.52 million out of Tibet, said Sun, who is also an academician with China Academy of Sciences.
Though nearly half (550 km) of the railway is built on frozen earth - under-zero soil containing ice, which thaws in warm weather and causes the earth subsidence, data show the rail tracks on frozen earth subsided less than 2 cm each year.
It is "quite an achievement", because controlling the subsidence within 30 cm can already be called the world's best record, he said.
In Russia and Canada, which also have railways on frozen earth, serious subsidence has made trains run much slower than designed, at 50-70 kph.
"Our trains have run at the designed speed of up to 100 kph," Sun said.
The railway has also survived earthquakes that shook the Tangula area four times in June 2008.
In the near future, a new railway will be built from Lhasa to Xigaze, and before 2020 a railway is planned connecting Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region and Tibet.
In the long term, there will also be railways entering Tibet from Chengdu in Sichuan province and Kunming in Yunnan province, he said.
In 2007, Tibet autonomous region gained 4.8 billion yuan from tourism revenue, up 73.3 percent year on year. Qinghai province gained 4.7 billion yuan, up 31.6 percent, according to official statistics.
Qinghai enjoys a splendid culture of river source. It is said,"Qinghai was once a mixing center of all cultures". The ancient Qiang people was one of the oldest nations who created the ancient culture of Qinghai plateau. A lot of unearthed artifacts, such as painted dancing pottery bowls, pottery drums, pottery whistles, four-hole bone flutes, and so on, made 3500—5000 years ago, proved that the Qinghai's culture was one of the Chinese culture sources.
The Kunlun mythology sourced within Qinghai province and the areas of river source, connecting with Qiang's culture, is also recognized as one of the Chinese culture sources. Specially, Qinghai's painted pottery culture wins is popularity in the world. The heroic epic "Gesa'er" spread in Qinghai - Tibetan areas is a huge opus with more than 10 million words and more than 1 million lines. It was said the opus born in the Song Dynasty was called encyclopaedia for Tibetans. Beside, the Regong arts are the painting arts in Tibetan traditions, which is also famous home and abroad. Qinghai was also the birthplace of Tibetan Buddhism in "Later Hong Period". The colorful custom culture is also important part of the river source culture. Now the unearthed artifacts have reached 200,000 sets, some of which belong to the State protection grade. There are many historic sites belonging to the State grade, such as Ta'er Lamasary,Qutan Lamasary, Longwu Lamasary,and so on, several hundreds ancient sites belonging to the provincial grade, and some ancient tombs, ancient ruins excavated or being excavated, such as Liuwan tombs, Tubo tomb groups in Dulan County, Shenna relics and the southern Liang Dynasty relics in Xining Hutai. All of these are the fruits of labour and intelligence of the people in all the southern Liang Dynasty relics in Xining Hutai. All of these are the fruits of labour and intelligence of the people in all periods. In addition, there are some other aspects for study and development, as "Tang—Bo ancient road", "Silk sub-road", minority's living, clothing, medicines, sports and artificial arts.
Now there are 8 large scale dance dramas, mostly created from traditional Tibetan dramas, such as Tibetan drama "Happy fairy maiden" and "Emissary of the Tibetan King", Tibetan song and dance drama "Battle on the Huoling Mount", Beijing opera "the King Gesa'er", song and dance drama "Flowers and Boys", and so on. All these dramas are either the heritage of the excellent cultural traditions or the successful combinations of modern spirit. Among them, the "On the Place Faraway" and "Flowers and Boys" have gone abroad, sung all over the world.