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 intowestchina >> China Tour Packages >> Kham Exploration Tour
Kham Exploration Tour A more...
Kham Tour: S01 Mt. Siguniang, Danba and Hailuogou 6-Day Tour
Kham Tour: K05 Amazing Kham Exploration 19 Days Tour
Kham Tour: K04 Gongga Ice Glacier,Khampa,Gyarong Tibetan Exploration Tour
Kham Tour: K03 Hometown visit of King Gesar 17 Days Tour
Kham Tour: K02 Shangrila Voyage in Kampas Sichuan 11 Days Tour
Kham Tour: K01 Danba Daocheng Yading Nature Reserve 9 Day Tour
Kham Exploration Tour B more...
Kham Tour: K11 Explore Aba Tibetan prefecture in Sichuan 13 days Tour
Kham Tour: K15 Chengdu to Xining Adventure through Ganzi Yushu 16 days
Kham Tour: K14 Yunnan – Sichuan Shangri-la Grand Circle Adventure Travel 13 days
Kham Tour: K13 East Tibet - Chamdo, Yushu and Derge Exploration 13 days Travel
Kham Tour: K12 Explore Ganzi-Aba Kham and Gyarong Tibetan 13 days Tour
Kham Tour: K10 Jiuzhaigou Wolong Tagong and Leshan Big Buddha 10 days Tour
Kham Exploration Tour C more...
Kham Tour: K18 Qinghai Sichuan Yunnan Trans Kham adventure via Yushu 20 days
Kham Tour: K17 Qinghai – Sichuan – Yunnan Trans Kham Advernture 19 days Tour
Kham Tour: K16 West Sichuan Kham Tibetan Exploration Round–way 19 days Tour
Kham Highlights more...
Vernacular Tibetan Architecture, Lost and Found
Tibetans live with democracy for half century
KHAM AND THE KHAMPAS
Travel to Fair Land Shangri-la
Trans Do-Kham Overland
Discover Eastern Tibet-Kham
Kham Hotel Booking more...
Yajiang Grand Hotel
Gongga God Hot Spring Hotel
Jiulong Dragon Sea Grand Hotel
Yading Angel Hotel
Litang Gaocheng Hotel
Hailuogou Gongga hotel
Kham Travel Tips & FAQ more...
Kham Travel Tips & FAQ B
Kham Travel Tips & FAQ C
Medical issues for travelers in Kham
Roads in Kham
The climate in Kham
Kham Travel Tips & FAQ A
Kham Travel Guide:  Kham Tibetan in Sichuan  Kham Tibetan in Yunnan  Kham Tibetan in Tibet  Kham Tibet in Qinghai more...
Yushu Weather
Yushu attraction:Longbaotan Nature Reserve
Yushu attraction:Jiana Mani Stones Diles
Yushu attraction:Princess Wencheng Temple
Yushu attraction:Jiegu Temple
Yushu Travel Guide
Fauna in Kham more...
Lhasa Apso
Tibetan Eared-Pheasant
The Giant Panda
Tibetan antelope
Bos mutus
Black-necked Cranes
Kham Photo more...
Kham photo gallery: Savagery lake Part2
Kham photo gallery: Savagery lake
Kham photo gallery: Kangting landscape
Kham photo gallery: Suopo Watchtower
Kham photo gallery: Litang Monerstary
Kham photo gallery: Jiaju Zang Nationality Village
Geography of Kham more...
Snow Mountains and lake at Eastern margin of Tibet Plateau
Kham attraction Shushan Minya Konka
Kham attraction Lithang Gaocheng town
Kham attraction Bitahai Lake Baishui Terrace
Kham attraction Dege Gengqing Town
011 Mugecuo Scenic Area
Monastery and Religion in Kham more...
Formation of Tibetan Buddhism
The Reincarnation of the Living Buddhas
Nyingma
The Gelugpa School of Tibetan Buddhism
Yarchen Monastery
the development and symbolism of tibetan buddhist art and iconography
Flora in Kham more...
The flowers in Tibet
Malus halliana
Cyatheaceae
Taiwania flousiana
Davidia involucrata
Sichuan Azalea
Architecture in Kham more...
Lhasa Dwelling House
Traditional Tibetan Architecture: monastery
Lhasa Old House
House
Tibetan Houses of Amdo and Kham
Ganzi Wooden Architecture
History of Kham more...
Overview of kangding
History of Shoton Festival
Kangding-Introduction
History of Kham
About Kham
001 A Brief to Kham
Education of Kham more...
Education in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture1
The Steady and Healthy Development of Modern Education (1987-Present)
Tibetan Education: Difficulties and Recovery (1966-1986)
Flourishing Development of Modern Education(1959-1965)
Creation of Modern Education (1951-1958)
Education in Old Tibet Under Feudal Serfdom
Economy of Kham more...
Tibetan economic growth saw recovered in Q3
Kangding Nationalities' Handicraft and Ornament Manufacturing Factory
Handicrafts and Economic development in Kham
Market Economy: Prerequisite to Tibet's Modernization
Tibetan Economy Depends on Beijing
Tibetan Economy
News about Kham more...
Xinjiang Energy Risk Rises
News from kham
Tibet Incorporated into Communist China.
World's second highest airport opens in SW China
New government-subsidized health insurance introduced in Kham
Chinese government puts Shangri-la on the map
Festival in Kham more...
Brief of Tibetan opera in Shoton Festival
Background of Shoton Festival
Tibetan Culture
Tibetan New Year
Litang and Litang Horse Racing Festival
Customs in Kham Tibetan Area
  
Kham Exploration
 
   

Kham (Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康巴; Pinyin: Kāngbā), is a region presently divided between the Chinese provinces of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, and Sichuan where Khampas, a subgroup within the Tibetan ethnicity, live. It is also one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile. During the Republic of China's rule over mainland China (1911-1949), most of the region was called Xikang Province (西康省 Xīkāng Shěng). It held the status of "special administrative district" until 1939, when it became an official Chinese province. Its provincial status was nominal and without much cohesion, like most of China's territory during the time of Japanese invasion and civil war.
 
Linguists and anthropologists refer to Kham as the 'Ethnic Corridor of Southwest China', as its vast and sparsely populated territories are inhabited by over 14 culturally and linguistically distinct ethnic groups. For reasons of simplicity, the Chinese government combines the various ethnic groups of Kham together with the Tibetans to form one big nationality, called the "Tibetan Nationality". There are, however, significant differences in traditions and beliefs--even physical appearance--between the peoples of Kham and Lhasa. At least one-third of Kham residents are speakers of Qiangic languages, a family of twelve distinct but interrelated languages that are not closely related to the Khams Tibetan language. Many Khampas are members of the Bön religion or 'Black sect' of Tibetan Buddhism, a group that had been largely marginalized and stigmatized by other Tibetan sects.
 
Kham comprised a total of 50 contemporary counties, which have been incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan (16 counties), Yunnan (3 counties), and Qinghai (6 counties) as well as the eastern portion of the Tibet Autonomous Region (25 counties).
 
Minya Konka mountain rangeKham has a rugged terrain characterized by mountain ridges and gorges running from northwest to southeast. Numerous rivers, including the Mekong, Yangtze, Yalong Jiang, and the Salween flow through Kham.
 
History
Kham was traditionally referred to as chuzhi gangdruk, i.e. 'four rivers and six ranges'. The peoples of Kham have endured a tumultuous past, their sovereignty often encroached upon and marginalized by both Tibetans to the West and the Han Chinese to the East.
Kham was never controlled by a single king, but was a patchwork of two dozen or more kingdoms, tribes, and chiefdoms that were constantly at war with each other. Since the collapse of the Tibetan Empire in the mid-9th century, the peoples of Kham had aggressively maintained their independence from Lhasa. Local chieftains ruled their respective territories with hereditary titles bestowed by Chinese emperors. Chinese control was minimal, however, and chieftains were able to rule with a large degree of independence from both China and Tibet.
 
Khampas - the inhabitants of KhamIn 1717, Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.
 
Tibetan control of the Batang region of Kham appears to have continued uncontested from an agreement made in 1726 until soon after the invasion of Tibet by Francis Younghusband in 1904, which alarmed the Qing rulers in China. They sent an imperial official to the region to begin reasserting Qing control, but the locals revolted and killed him. The Qing government in Beijing then appointed Zhao Erfeng, the Governor of Xining, "Army Commander of Tibet" to reintegrate Tibet into China. He was sent in 1905 (though other sources say this occurred in 1908) on a punitive expedition and began destroying many monasteries in Kham and Amdo and implementing a process of sinification of the region:
 
"He abolished the powers of the Tibetan local leaders and appointed Chinese magistrates in their places. He introduced new laws that limited the number of lamas and deprived monasteries of their temporal power and inaugurated schemes for having the land cultivated by Chinese immigrants.
Zhao's methods in eastern Tibet uncannily prefigured the Communist policies nearly half a century later. They were aimed at the extermination of the Tibetan clergy, the assimilation of territory and repopulation of the Tibetan plateaus with poor peasants from Sichuan. Like the later Chinese conquerors, Zhao's men looted and destroyed Tibetan monasteries, melted down religious images and tore up sacred texts to use to line the soles of their boots and, as the Communists were also to do later, Zhao Erfeng worked out a comprehensive scheme for the redevelopment of Tibet that covered military training reclamation work, secular education, trade and administration."
In 1910, the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own to establish direct Chinese rule and deposed the Dalai Lama in an imperial edict. The Dalai Lama once again fled, this time to India. "By going in and then coming out again, we knocked the Tibetans down and left them for the first comer to kick," wrote Charles Alfred Bell, a British diplomatic officer stationed in Sikkim and a critic of the Liberal government's policy. The situation was soon to change, however, as, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in October 1911, Zhao's soldiers mutinied and beheaded him.
 
The 13th Dalai Lama fled to British India in February 1910. The same month, the Chinese Qing government issued a proclamation deposing the Dalai Lama and instigating the search for a new incarnation.While in India, the Dalai Lama became a close friend of the British Political Officer Charles Alfred Bell.
 
The official position of the British Government was it would not intervene between China and Tibet and would only recognize the de facto government of China within Tibet at this time.Bell, in his history of Tibet, wrote of this time that "the Tibetans were abandoned to Chinese aggression, an aggression for which the British Military Expedition to Lhasa and subsequent retreat [and consequent power vacuum within Tibet) were primarily responsible".Later, Britain defined the Indo-Tibetan border at the 1914 Simla conference with the McMahon Line. China's delegation initialled the convention but the government repudiated it.
 
In 1932, an agreement signed between Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui and Tibetan forces formalized the partition of Kham into two regions: Eastern Kham, which was administered by Chinese forces, and Western Kham, which was administered by Tibet. Eastern Kham subsequently became the actual area of control of China's Xikang province. The border between eastern and western Kham is the Yangtze River - Dri Chu in Tibetan and Jinsha Jiang, or Chang Jiang respectively, in Chinese.
In 1950, following the defeat of the Kuomintang rulers of China by communist forces in the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army entered western Kham. Western Kham was then set up as a separate Qamdo Territory (昌都地区), then merged into Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965. Meanwhile, Xikang province, comprising eastern Kham, was merged into Sichuan province in 1955. The border between Sichuan and Tibet Autonomous Region has remained the Yangtze River. The northernmost region of Kham, Yushu, has been a part of Qinghai province since the 18th century.
 
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